Rapid Rural Assessment RRA

A procedure for gathering and analyzing information about community socio-economic conditions preparatory to making development decisions; where community participation is a priority; also “Participatory Rural Assessment” (PRA) or “Rapid Coastal Assessment” (RCA).


Red tide

A massive “bloom” of dinoflagellate microscopic organisms that may produce neurotoxins such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) that infest marine organisms and humans that eat them; may kill fish and pollute the air with irritating substance; red or reddish brown discoloration of the sea.

Regulatory Agency

Usually a government ministry, department, office, directorate or other unit of government entrusted by law or administrative act with the responsibility for the general supervision of the safe design, construction and operations of structures or facilities, as well as any entity to which all or part of the executive or operational tasks and functions have been delegated by legal power.

Remote sensing

The acquisition and processing of information about a distant object or phenomenon without any physical contact; often done from satellites.

Replenishment zone

An area within a coastal reserve designated and managed as a non-exploitation sanctuary to enhance replenishment of fishery stocks.

Responsive and participatory

Poor people must be key actors in identifying and addressing livelihood priorities. Outsiders need processes that enable them to listen and respond to the poor.


Retaining wallWall built to hold back the earth.



A coastal land use strategy whereby structural development is withdrawn from the coast to a designated setback line farther inland.


A structure built to protect the shore from erosion, usually constructed from stones laid with a sloping face.



Pertaining to the banks of rivers and streams, and sometimes also wetlands, lakes, or tidewater.



 A layer, facing, or protective mound of stones placed laterally to prevent erosion, scour, or sloughing of a structure or embankment; also, the stone so used.


A blanket of appropriately sized stones extending from the toe of slope to a height needed for long term durability. 



Combines both the consequence and probability to prove and evaluation of the significance of a hazard scenario.



Measure of the probability and severity of an adverse effect to life, health, property, or the environment. In the general case, risk is estimated by the combined impact of scenario, probability of occurrence and the associated consequence. In the special case, average risk is estimated by the mathematical expectation of the consequences of an adverse event occurring, that is, the product of the probability of occurrence and the consequence, combined over all scenarios.


Risk analysis

The use of available information to estimate the risk to individuals or Risk Analysis   Used interchangeably with Risk Assessment.  It is the use of available information to estimate the risk to individuals or populations, property or the environment, from hazards. Risk analyses generally contain the following steps: definition of scope, hazard identification, estimation of probability of occurrence, consequence identification, and risk estimation.


Risk analysis phase

A phase of ecological risk assessment consisting of two main parts: 1) characterization of ecological effects— evaluating the ability of a stressor(s) to cause adverse effects under a particular set of circumstances, and 2) characterization of exposure— evaluating the interaction of the stressor with one or more ecological entities.


Risk assessment

The overall process of identifying and analyzing risks. The process of characterizing hazards within risk areas by analyzing them for their potential mishap consequences and probabilities of occurrence, and combining the two estimates to reach a risk rating.

Risk characterization

Description of the probabilities and consequences of a hazard, including the uncertainties in the estimates.


Risk communication

An interactive process of exchange of information and opinion among stakeholders; often involves multiple messages about the nature of risk or expressing concerns, opinions, or reactions to risk messages or to legal and institutional arrangements for risk management.


Risk estimation

Ideally, the conclusions of the risk characterization phase expressed as some type of quantitative statement (e.g., there is a 20% chance of 50% mortality under the circumstances assessed), but often expressed as a qualitative statement (e.g., there is a high likelihood of mortality occurring).

Risk Evaluation

The stage at which values and judgment enter the decision process, explicitly or implicitly, by including consideration of the importance of the estimated risks and the associated social, environmental, and economic consequences, in order to identify a range of alternatives for managing the risks.

Risk Management

The process, by which assessed risks are mitigated, minimized or controlled through engineering, management or operational means. This involves the optimal allocation of available resources in support of group goals. The process of evaluating and selecting action alternatives in response to risk assessment findings. It is the systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, assessing, mitigating and monitoring risk.


Rock ProtectionA simple revetment comprising one layer of rock.



When a large mass of rock slips or falls down onto a beach. It is usually caused by the sea eroding the bottom of the cliff.

RubbleLoose, angular, waterworn stones along a beach.



That part of precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water that runs off the land into streams or other water bodies, including coastal waters; it often carries pollutants from the land into the receiving waters.