Acanthus ilicifolius  
    · Domain : Eukaryota

        · Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae 

· Superorder : Lamianae  

· Order : Scrophulariales

· Family : Acanthaceae

· Subfamily : Acanthoideae

· Genus : Acanthus

· Specific epithet : ilicifolius - L.

· Botanical name : Acanthus ilicifolius

Identification

Main Features :  Viny shrub or tall herb, upto 1.5 m high, scarcely woody, bushy.

Root :  very dense growth  Shallow tap roots, but occasionally stilt roots are conspicuous.

Leaves :  opposite, decussate, cauline, exstipulate, petiole short, flattened, glabrous, pulvinous to sheathing base Lamina oblong, elliptic-oblong, spiny  margin and wavy, apex acute, basal angled, dorsiventral, green  Inflorescence raceme, spike, upto 16 cm long, peduncled

Flowers :  bracteate, curved, ovoid, entire, acute, basal cup-shaped, glabrous, greenish, two bracteoles partly covered by bracts Flower bisexual, typically zygomorphic, complete, erect, sessile, hypogynous,   Sepals 5, polysepalous, twisted, borad, ovate, margin folded, acute, basal curved, coriaceous, greenish , persistent.  

Fruit :  1 cm green and 2.5 - 2.0 cm long, kidney shaped 4 seed drupe, Seed 0.5 - 1.0 cm long Germination of seed hypgeal. 

 

 Aegiceras corniculatum  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Dilleniidae

· Superorder : Primulanae

· Order : Myrsinales

· Family : Myrsinaceae

· Genus : Aegiceras

· Specific epithet : corniculatum - (L.) Blanco

· Botanical name : Aegiceras corniculatum

 

Identification

Main Features: This is a multi-stemmed shrub usually reaching about two to three meters in height.  

Root: Unlike the Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina ssp. australaisica), which has a thick trunk, it does not have pneumatophores (air breathing roots) sticking out of the mud. 

Leaves: It has alternate rounded leaves. The curved-cylindrical fruit, which give the species its name, can be seen in summer and early autumn.

Fruit: The seeds germinate while still on the parent plant and the plantlets can establish quickly after they fall into the mud below, or are left stranded after being transported elsewhere by currents of water.

 

 Arthrocnemum indicum  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Chenopodiineae

· Family : Chenopodiaceae

· Genus : Arthrocnemum

· Specific epithet : indicum - Thwaites

· Botanical name : Arthrocnemum indicum Thwaites

Identification

Main features : Main stems prostrate, up to at least 40 cm. long, reaching several feet and forming loose open mats in age, with profuse, lateral, ascending or erect, fertile or sterile branches about 15–30 cm. high.

 flowers : Male flowers unknown. Female flowering spikes mostly about 1–4 cm. long and 4–5 mm. in diameter, the flowers (except stigmas) hidden.

Fruit: Fruiting spikes cylindrical or somewhat thickened in middle, obtuse at apex, about 5–7 mm. in diameter, built up of numerous closely imbricate ring-like thickened fertile segments, their margins 1.5–3 (–4) mm. apart vertically, completely hiding the fruits;

Seed:  about 1 mm. long and 0.8 mm. wide; testa pale brown, thin and rather soft.


 Avicennia marina  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Avicenniaceae

· Subfamily : Avicennioideae

· Genus : Avicennia

· Specific epithet : marina

· Botanical name : Avicennia marina

Identification

Main Features : Avicennia is an evergreen tree growing up to 6m in height

Root : Dark brown aerial roots (pneumatophores) that reach beyond the high tide mark. These roots, forming an intrinsic network which can be best seen at low tide.

Leaves : The tree has elliptical, leathery leaves that are dark green on the front and grayish underneath, often crusted over with salt crystals.

Flowers : The tiny flowers are orange with hardy, exserted stamens.

Fruits :  appear as green 'nuts'. When ripe, they drop into the water and the tides wash them to new locations. Young mangrove shoots are easily identified throughout the Sinai coastline.

 

 Avicennia officinalis  
    · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Avicenniaceae

· Genus : Avicennia

· Specific epithet : officinalis - L.

· Botanical name : Avicennia officinalis

Identification

Main features : Grows to 25m.

Bark : Young trees are reddish brown and smooth, older trees are grey-brown.

Roots : Pencil-like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots.

Leaves : Thick, leathery, spoon-like (rounded at tip with edges slightly rolled under), shiny green above, underneath slightly hairy.

Flowers : Small, yellow, several together, forming a cross-shaped inflorescence.

Fruits : Flat capsule containing one seed.

 Bruguiera Cylindrica  
   · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons

· Subclass : Rosidae 1967

· Superorder : Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

· Family : Rhizophoraceae

· Genus : Bruguiera

· Specific epithet : Cylindrica - (L.)

· Botanical name : Bruguiera Cylindrica

Identification

Main features : Grows up to 20m tall.

Bark : Smooth, grey.

Roots : Kneed pneumatophores with buttress roots.

Leaves : Thin, light green, pointed.

Flowers : small greenish white, petals tipped with little tassels.


Fruits : The seed germinates in the fruit forming a cigar-shaped seedling up to 15cm long. The seedling grows slightly curved and may be purplish. The green/yellow sepals stick out at right angles from the fruit.

 Ceriops decandra  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

· Family : Rhizophoraceae

· Genus : Ceriops

· Specific epithet : decandra

· Botanical name : Ceriops decandra

Identification

Main features :  2 to 3 m tall shrub forming small butteresses;

Leaves : branches thick, leaves simple and opposite;

Flowers : di-to tri-chotomous in condensed axillary cymes; hypocotyle 9-15 cm long, sharply ridged.

Fruits : fruit one celled one seeded. Forms thin knee-like pneumatophorh. Very rare.


 Excoecaria agallocha  
       · Kingdom : Plantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Order : Malpighiales

· Family : Euphorbiaceae

· Subfamily : Euphorbioideae

· Tribe : Hippomaneae

· Genus : Excoecaria

· Specific epithet : agallocha

· Botanical name : Excoecaria agallocha L.

Identification

Main features : Grows 14-20m tall.

Bark : grey, rough covered with brown corky pores.

Leaves : 6-10cm long, pointed tips. Old leaves turn bright red.

Flowers :
Tiny flowers in spikes. Male and female flowers occur in separate trees.

Fruit : Small, round, in clusters. Seeds float.

 

Lumnitzera racemosa  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Myrtanae

· Order : Myrtales

· Suborder : Lythrineae

· Family : Combretaceae

· Genus : Lumnitzera

· Specific epithet : racemosa

· Botanical name : Lumnitzera racemosa

Identification

Main features :  An evergreen, medium sized, erect and much-branched tree that grows up to 10 m height.

 

Root : Above-ground breathing roots are normally absent but in moist environments, small looping lateral roots may develop. Bark is grey in colour and fissured longitudinally in older trees.

 

Leaves :  Simple, alternate in arrangement, small in size, 3 to 7 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide, succulent, obovate in shape with an indent in the tip; leaf margin is slightly wavy. Inflorescence is spike, 2 to 3 cm long and axillary in position.

 

Flowers : Small and erect with green-coloured tube-like calyx, which is divided into five lobes at the tip. Petals are five, white in colour and arranged alternate to sepals. Stamens are ten in number, free, arranged in two whorls, five stamens at the base of the petal and remaining five at the base of the lobes of the calyx.

 

Fruit : Vase-shaped, 1 to 2 cm long,yellowish green in colour, glossy, corky, buoyant and dispersed by currents. Eachfruit contains one oblong ovoid seed.

 

 Rhizophora  apiculata

· Domain :  Eukaryota  

 · Kingdom :  Plantae

· Subkingdom :  Viridaeplantae

· Phylum :  Tracheophyta

· Subphylum :  Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum :  Radiatopses

· Class :  Magnoliopsida

· Subclass :  Rosidae

· Superorder :  Rhizophoranae

· Order :  Rhizophorales

· Family :  Rhizophoraceae

· Tribe :  Rhizophoreae

· Genus :  Rhizophora

· Specific epithet :  apiculata

· Botanical name :  Rhizophora apiculata

 

Identification :

Main features :   An evergreen, medium sized, much-branched tree that is capable of reaching 20 m height but most of the individuals found in Maldives are only about 6 to 10 m tall.

 

Root :  It is characterized by the presence of numerous stilt roots, which are looping from branches and trunk bases and provide support to trees; they also function as air-breathing roots.

 

Bark :   Grey or dark grey in colour and sometimes longitudinally fissured. Leaves are simple, opposite in arrangement, narrowly elliptic,apiculate (with abrupt slender tip) and smaller than that of other Rhizophoraspecies.

 

Flowers :  Inflorescence is a two-flowered cyme on short, stout, dark grey peduncle and axillary in position. Calyx is four lobed, greenish yellow inside and reddish green outside.Petals are four in number and white coloured; not hairy.

 

Rhizophora mucronata

· Domain :  Eukaryota 

  · Kingdom :  Plantae

· Subkingdom :  Viridaeplantae

· Phylum :  Tracheophyta

· Subphylum :  Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum :  Radiatopses

· Class :  Magnoliopsida

· Subclass :  Rosidae

·Superorder:Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

·Family:  Rhizophoraceae

· Tribe :  Rhizophoreae

· Genus :  Rhizophora

·Specificepithet:mucronata

·Botanicalname:Rhizophora mucronata

Identification :

Main features  :  An evergreen, much-branched, slow growing shrub or small tree 4 to 6

m tall .

Root :  No prominent aerial roots are present. Twigs are angular and hairy.

 

Bark :   slight grey to brown, flaky in old trees. Leaves are simple, opposite in arrangement, oblong to lanceolate in shape, 0.5 to 2.2 cm long and 0.2 to 1 cm wide, round or bluntly acute at the tip and hairy on both the sides.

Flowers :  Flowers are white or pinkish-white in colour and 0. 7 to 1.0 cm across; calyx is tubular, 12- lobed, green in colour and hairy.Petals are six, white and inserted between calyx lobes.

 

Fruit :  is tubular with rounded apex, about 1 cm long and 0.3 to 0.5 cm wide, densely hairy and green in young and brown when matured. Each fruit contains 20 to 30 small seeds.

 Salicornia brachiata  
     · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Chenopodiineae

· Family : Chenopodiaceae

· Genus : Salicornia

· Specific epithet : brachiata

· Botanical name : Salicornia brachiata

 

Identification

Main features  : The Salicornia species are small, usually less than 30 cm tall, succulent herbs with a jointed horizontal main stem and erect lateral branches.

Leaves :  The leaves are small and scale-like and as such the plant may appear leafless. Many species are green, but their foliage turns red in autumn.

Flowers :  The hermaphrodite flowers are wind pollinated.

Fruit :  small and succulent and contains a single seed.

 

Suaeda maritime 
   · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Chenopodiineae

· Family : Polypodiaceae

· Genus : Suaeda

· Specific epithet : maritima

· Subspecies : richii

· Botanical name : Suaeda maritima richii (Fern.)

Identification

Main features : Herbs annual, 20-50 cm tall, glabrous. Stem prostrate or obliquely spreading, somewhat ribbed, base branched and slightly woody;

 Leaves :  gray-green, linear, semiterete, slightly compressed, 0.5-1.5 cm × 1-1.5 mm, base slightly contracted, apex subobtuse or acute; leaves of lateral branches shorter than others, equaling or longer than perianth.

Flowers :  bisexual. Perianth green, 5-parted, somewhat fleshy; segments thickened and cucullate in fruit, base extending into an irregular, winglike or tonguelike process. Filaments slightly exserted; anthers broadly oblong or subglobose, ca. 0.2 mm. Style obscure; stigmas 2, black-brown. 

Seed :  black, sublustrous, depressed ovoid or lenticular, 1.2-1.5 mm in diam., distinctly pitted. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct.

 

 Suaeda monoica

·  Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Chenopodiineae

· Family : Polypodiaceae

· Genus : Suaeda

· Specific epithet : monoica

· Botanical name : Suaeda monoica

Identification

Main features : Shrub 1.2–6 m. high, much branched, glabrous or slightly and inconspicuously pubescent on young parts only.

 Leaves :  fleshy, linear to linear-oblong, obtuse to acute at apex, narrowed near the sessile or very shortly petioled base, inferior and middle leaves mostly 1.3–3.3 (4) × 0.15–0.3 cm., superior leaves (bracts) progressively shorter.

Flowers :  green, clustered in upper axils, the clusters aggregated to form interrupted or sometimes dense spikes bracteate as throughout or below only; plants with male and female flowers or only flowers with 5 stamens and a rudimentary ovary expanded at apex into a peltate disk; stigmas 3–4.

Seeds : “vertical”, c. 1.5–1.75 × 1–1.25 mm.; testa black, almost smooth.