Acanthus ilicifolius

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae 

· Superorder : Lamianae  

·Order:Scrophulariales

·Family:Acanthaceae

·Subfamily:Acanthoideae

·Genus:Acanthus

·Specificepithe:licifoliuL.

·Botanicalname:Acanthus ilicifolius

Identification

Main Features :  Viny shrub or tall herb, upto 1.5 m high, scarcely woody, bushy.

Root :  very dense growth  Shallow tap roots, but occasionally stilt roots are conspicuous.

Leaves :  opposite, decussate, cauline, exstipulate, petiole short, flattened, glabrous, pulvinous to sheathing base Lamina oblong, elliptic-oblong, spiny  margin and wavy, apex acute, basal angled, dorsiventral, green  Inflorescence raceme, spike, upto 16 cm long, peduncled

Flowers :  bracteate, curved, ovoid, entire, acute, basal cup-shaped, glabrous, greenish, two bracteoles partly covered by bracts Flower bisexual, typically zygomorphic, complete, erect, sessile, hypogynous,   Sepals 5, polysepalous, twisted, borad, ovate, margin folded, acute, basal curved, coriaceous, greenish , persistent 

Fruit :  1 cm green and 2.5 - 2.0 cm long, kidney shaped 4 seed drupe, Seed 0.5 - 1.0 cm long Germination of seed hypgeal. 

 


Sesuvium portulacastrum

·  Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Phytolaccineae  

· Family : Aizoaceae

· Genus :Halimus

· Specific epithet : portulacastrum

· Botanical name : Sesuvium portulacastrum

 

Identification

Main features  : It grows as a sprawling perennial herb up to 30 centimetres (12 in) high, with thick, smooth stems up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) long.

Leaves : It has smooth, fleshy, glossy green leaves that are linear or lanceolate, from 10–70 millimetres (0.39–2.8 in) long and 2–15 millimetres (0.079–0.59 in) wide.

Flowers : Pink or purple

 Avicennia alba

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Avicenniaceae

· Genus : Avicennia

· Specific epithet : alba

· Botanical name : Avicennia alba

Identification

Main features :  Grows to 25m.
Roots :  pencil-like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots.
Leaves :  Shiny green above, underneath white and waxy.
Flowers :  Small, yellow, several together , forming a cross-shaped inflorescence.
Fruits :  Flat capsule containing one seed.

 Avicennia marina

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Avicenniaceae

· Subfamily : Avicennioideae

· Genus : Avicennia

· Specific epithet : marina

· Botanical name : Avicennia marina

Identification

Main Features : Avicennia is an evergreen tree growing up to 6m in height

Root : Dark brown aerial roots (pneumatophores) that reach beyond the high tide mark. These roots, forming an intrinsic network which can be best seen at low tide.

Leaves : The tree has elliptical, leathery leaves that are dark green on the front and grayish underneath, often crusted over with salt crystals.

Flowers : The tiny flowers are orange with hardy, exserted stamens.

Fruits :  appear as green 'nuts'. When ripe, they drop into the water and the tides wash them to new locations. Young mangrove shoots are easily identified throughout the Sinai coastline.

 

 

Avicennia officinalis

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Avicenniaceae

· Genus : Avicennia

· Specific epithet : officinalis - L.

· Botanical name : Avicennia officinalis

Identification

Main features : Grows to 25m.

Bark : Young trees are reddish brown and smooth, older trees are grey-brown.

Roots : Pencil-like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots.

Leaves : Thick, leathery, spoon-like (rounded at tip with edges slightly rolled under), shiny green above, underneath slightly hairy.

Flowers : Small, yellow, several together, forming a cross-shaped inflorescence.

Fruits : Flat capsule containing one seed.

Suaeda nudiflora

· Botanical Domain: Eukaryota

· Kingdom: Plantae

· Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae

· Phylum: Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum: Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum: Radiatopses

· Class: Magnoliopsida

· Subclass: Caryophyllidae

· Superorder: Caryophyllanae

· Order: Caryophyllales

· Suborder: Chenopodiineae

· Family: Chenopodiaceae

· Genus: Suaeda

· Specific epithet: nudiflora

· Botanical name: Suaeda nudiflora

Identification

Tree: Herbs, subshrubs , or shrubs [trees ], annual or perennial , glabrous or pubescent, glaucous or not.

Stems:  Prostrate to erect , simple or branched, not jointed , not armed , not fleshy .

Leaves: alternate or opposite, sessile or short-petiolate, fleshy; blade glaucous or green, linear , lanceolate, oblanceolate , or elliptic , flat or semiterete to terete , base usually narrowed, margins entire, apex blunt or rounded to acute or apiculate .

Flowers:  all bisexual or bisexual and pistillate intermixed, staminate flowers sometimes present; perianth actinomorphic , zygomorphic, or irregular; perianth segments persistent and enclosing fruit, 5, distinct or proximally to almost completely connate.

Seeds:  seed coat black, blackish brown, blackish red, or brownish green, smooth or papillate to reticulate; embryo coiled; perisperm absent or scant.

Excoecaria agallocha

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Order : Malpighiales

· Family : Euphorbiaceae

· Subfamily : Euphorbioideae

· Tribe : Hippomaneae

· Genus : Excoecaria

· Specific epithet : agallocha

· Botanical name : Excoecaria agallocha L.

Identification

Main features : Grows 14-20m tall.

Bark : grey, rough covered with brown corky pores.

Leaves : 6-10cm long, pointed tips. Old leaves turn bright red.

Flowers :
Tiny flowers in spikes. Male and female flowers occur in separate trees.

Fruit : Small, round, in clusters. Seeds float.

Dalbergia spinosa

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Fabanae

· Order : Fabales

· Family : Fabaceae

· Subfamily : Faboideae

· Tribe : Dalbergieae

· Genus : Dalbergia

· Specific epithet : spinosa

· Botanical name :  Dalbergia spinosa

Identification

Main Features :  Shrubs or small trees, 3-6 m tall, branches stiff and horizontal, ending in sharp spines.

Leaves :  Leaves 6-9 cm long, crowded at nodes of the spinous branchlets

Flowers :  Flowers purplish-white in short dense corymbose clusters in the leaf axils.

 

 Derris trifoliate

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Fabanae

· Order : Fabales

· Family : Fabaceae

· Subfamily : Faboideae

· Genus : Derris

· Specific epithet : trifoliata

· Botanical name : Derris trifoliata

Identification

Main Features :  Large woody climbing shrubs, branches wiry, strong, lenticellate.

Leaves :  Leaves imparipinnate, 6-15 cm long; leaflets 5-10 x 2-3.5 cm ovate-oblong, acute at apex, rounded at base, shining.

Flowers :  Flowers, white, 4-6 cm across, in axillary racemes.

 

Aegiceras corniculatum

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Dilleniidae

· Superorder : Primulanae

· Order : Myrsinales

· Family : Myrsinaceae

· Genus : Aegiceras

· Specific epithet : corniculatum - (L.) Blanco

· Botanical name : Aegiceras corniculatum

 

Identification

Main Features: This is a multi-stemmed shrub usually reaching about two to three meters in height.  

Root: Unlike the Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina ssp. australaisica), which has a thick trunk, it does not have pneumatophores (air breathing roots) sticking out of the mud. 

Leaves: It has alternate rounded leaves. The curved-cylindrical fruit, which give the species its name, can be seen in summer and early autumn.

Fruit: The seeds germinate while still on the parent plant and the plantlets can establish quickly after they fall into the mud below, or are left stranded after being transported elsewhere by currents of water.

 

 

Aegialitis rotundifolia

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta 

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Plumbaginanae

· Order : Plumbaginales

· Family : Plumbaginaceae

· Genus : Aegialitis

· Specific epithet : rotundifolia  

· Botanical name : Aegialitis rotundifolia

Identification

Main Features :  Shrubs or small trees upto 7 m tall, stem base about 20 cm in diameter.

Root :  Swollen and with numerous stilt roots

Leaves :  Leaves alternate, 2.5-9 X 3-9 cm, rounded or broadly ovate or sub-orbicular, thickly leathery, shining, obtuse or shortly apiculate at apex, abruptly cuneate at base, petiole 4-8.5 cm long, thick, dilated at base clasping the stem, glandular

Flowers :  Flowers 15-20 mm long, white, arranged in leafy-pani­cles; calyx 5-lobed, tubular; corolla white, united at base forming a short tube with staminal bases; stamens 5

Fruit :  Fruits capsular. 8­-10 cm long, linear, 5-ribbed, slightly curved, 1-seeded, dehiscing from top along the ribs, hypocotyle about 6 cm long. while, with plumu­lar cap and a long funiculus.

Aeluropus  lagopoides

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Class : Liliopsida

· Subclass : Commelinidae

· Order : Poales

· Suborder : Poanae

· Family : Poaceae

· Genus : Aeluropus

· Specific name : lagopoides

· Botanical name: Aeluropus lagopoides

 

Identification

Main Features: Perennials, tough, stoloniferous or rhizomatous. culms up to 15 cm high, erect or creeping at the base.

Leaves: Leaf blades stiff, rolled, often markedly distichous, pungent; ligule a narrow ciliate membrane.

Flower: Inflorescence spike like or capitate, composed of short, erect racemes of subsessile, tightly imbricate spikelets appressed to a central axis. Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy; ciliate; truncate. Anthers 3; 1–1.5 mm long.

Fruit: Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; dorsally compressed. Embryo 0.6 length of caryopsis.

Porteresia coarctata

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Liliopsida

· Subclass : Commelinidae

· Superorder : Poanae

· Order : Cyperales

· Family : Poaceae

· Genus : Porteresia

· Specific epithet : coarctata

· Botanical name : Porteresia coarctata

Identification

Main Features :  Perennial grass 1-2 m tall, rhizome thick, creeping.

Leaves :  Leaves linear, coriaceous with spinulose margins.

Flowers : Panicles spiciform, branched, each with a few flowers; glumes 1 and 2 setaceous, glume 3 smooth, dorsally winged into an awn; lodicules subquadrate, mem­branous.

 

Suaeda maritime

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Magnoliophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Caryophyllidae

· Superorder : Caryophyllanae

· Order : Caryophyllales

· Suborder : Chenopodiineae

· Family : Polypodiaceae

· Genus : Suaeda

· Specific epithet : maritima

· Subspecies : richii

· Botanical name : Suaeda maritima richii (Fern.)

Identification

Main features : Herbs annual, 20-50 cm tall, glabrous. Stem prostrate or obliquely spreading, somewhat ribbed, base branched and slightly woody;

 Leaves :  gray-green, linear, semiterete, slightly compressed, 0.5-1.5 cm × 1-1.5 mm, base slightly contracted, apex subobtuse or acute; leaves of lateral branches shorter than others, equaling or longer than perianth.

Flowers :  bisexual. Perianth green, 5-parted, somewhat fleshy; segments thickened and cucullate in fruit, base extending into an irregular, winglike or tonguelike process. Filaments slightly exserted; anthers broadly oblong or subglobose, ca. 0.2 mm. Style obscure; stigmas 2, black-brown. 

Seed :  black, sublustrous, depressed ovoid or lenticular, 1.2-1.5 mm in diam., distinctly pitted. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct.

Bruguiera Cylindrica

· Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons

· Subclass : Rosidae 1967

· Superorder : Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

· Family : Rhizophoraceae

· Genus : Bruguiera

· Specific epithet : Cylindrica - (L.)

· Botanical name : Bruguiera Cylindrica

Identification

Main features : Grows up to 20m tall.

Bark : Smooth, grey.

Roots : Kneed pneumatophores with buttress roots.

Leaves : Thin, light green, pointed.

Flowers : small greenish white, petals tipped with little tassels.


Fruits : The seed germinates in the fruit forming a cigar-shaped seedling up to 15cm long. The seedling grows slightly curved and may be purplish. The green/yellow sepals stick out at right angles from the fruit.

Bruguiera gymnorirhiza

   · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

· Family : Rhizophoraceae

· Genus : Bruguiera

· Botanical name : Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

Identification

Main features : Grows 8-30m tall.
Bark : Brown, almost black.
Roots :
Knee roots (45cm tall) with buttress roots.
Leaves : Leathery, large (10-20cm), in rosettes at the ends of branches.
Flowers : Large sepals that are red in the sun and yellowish in the shade. The real flower petals are less colourful. Blooms throughout the year.

Fruits : The seed germinates in the fruit forming a cigar-shaped seedling 10-20cm long. The seedling grows straight and has a blunt narrow tip.

 Ceriops decandra

      · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Rosidae

· Superorder : Rhizophoranae

· Order : Rhizophorales

· Family : Rhizophoraceae

· Genus : Ceriops

· Specific epithet : decandra

· Botanical name : Ceriops decandra

Identification

Main features :  2 to 3 m tall shrub forming small butteresses;

Leaves : branches thick, leaves simple and opposite;

Flowers : di-to tri-chotomous in condensed axillary cymes; hypocotyle 9-15 cm long, sharply ridged.

Fruits : fruit one celled one seeded. Forms thin knee-like pneumatophorh. Very rare.

    · Domain : Eukaryota

· Kingdom : Plantae

· Subkingdom : Viridaeplantae

· Phylum : Tracheophyta

· Subphylum : Euphyllophytina 

· Infraphylum : Radiatopses

· Class : Magnoliopsida

· Subclass : Lamiidae

· Superorder : Lamianae

· Order : Lamiales

· Family : Verbenaceae

· Genus : Clerodendron 

· Specific epithet : inerme

· Botanical name : Clerodendron inerme

Identification

Main Features : Evergreen sprawling shrub 1-1.8 m tall.

Leaves :  Leaves ovate to elliptical (5-10 cm) long, acute to acuminate tip, green, smooth, slightly shiny upper 2 surface, pinnate venation, margins entire, leaves opposite, simple.

 

Flowers :  Cyme or umbel usually comprised of 3 flowers joined at a common base point; corolla white, fused, with 5 lobes; stamens 4, reddish to purple and upwardly curved.

 

Fruit :  Fruit green turning black, 1 – 1.5 cm long, obovoid.